This new spinning concept, expounded in a 2005 dissertion at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, was developed to take advantage of the quality features produced by ring spinning and adding to it the much higher spinning speeds by avoiding the traditional limitations of the traditional system. Magnetic spinning system mainly consists of a lightweight rotor magnetically suspended inside a fixed stator (Figure 1). The rotor can spin freely inside the stator.
A wide variety of laboratory-scale centrifuges are used in chemistry, biology, biochemistry and clinical medicine for isolating and separating suspensions and immiscible liquids. They vary widely in speed, capacity, temperature control, and other characteristics. Laboratory centrifuges often can accept a range of different fixed-angle and swinging bucket rotors able to carry different numbers of centrifuge tubes and rated for specific maximum speeds. Controls vary from simple electrical timers to programmable models able to control acceleration and deceleration rates, running speeds, and temperature regimes. Ultracentrifuges spin the rotors under vacuum, eliminating air resistance and enabling exact temperature control. Zonal rotors and continuous flow systems are capable of handing bulk and larger sample volumes, respectively, in a laboratory-scale instrument. Another application in laboratories is blood separation.
A flywheel may also be used to supply intermittent pulses of energy at power levels that exceed the abilities of its energy source. This is achieved by accumulating energy in the flywheel over a period of time, at a rate that is compatible with the energy source, and then releasing energy at a much higher rate over a relatively short time when it is needed. For example, flywheels are used in power hammers and riveting machines.
Flywheels can be used to control direction and oppose unwanted motions, see gyroscope. Flywheels in this context have a wide range of applications from gyroscopes for instrumentation to ship stability and satellite stabilization (reaction wheel), to keep a toy spin spinning (friction motor), to stabilize magnetically levitated objects (Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation)
As the development of the necessary components progressed, scientific interest in the field also increased, peaking in the first International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings held in 1988 in Zürich with the founding of the International Society of Magnetic Bearings by Prof. Schweitzer (ETHZ), Prof. Allaire (University of Virginia), and Prof. Okada (Ibaraki University). Since then, the symposium has developed into a biennial conference series with a permanent portal on magnetic bearing technology where all symposium contributions are made available. The web portal is supported by the international research and industrial community. Joining the hall of fame and earning lifetime achievement awards in 2012 were Prof. Yohji Okada, Prof. Gerhard Schweitzer, and Michael Swann of Waukesha Magnetic Bearings.
A substance that is diamagnetic repels a magnetic field. All materials have diamagnetic properties, but the effect is very weak, and is usually overcome by the object's paramagnetic or ferromagnetic properties, which act in the opposite manner. Any material in which the diamagnetic component is stronger will be repelled by a magnet.
First of all, a pancaked planet might not have any gravity. It’s unclear how gravity would work, or be created, in such a world, says James Davis, a geophysicist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. That’s a pretty big deal, since gravity explains a wide range of Earthly and cosmic observations. The same measurable force that causes an apple to fall from a tree also causes the moon to orbit the Earth and all the planets to orbit the sun.
His twin brother, Jean-Felix, who had migrated to the USA and become a professor of chemistry, made another ascent into the stratosphere, with his wife, Jeannette. Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek was named after him. Together with Ed Yost, one of their three sons, Don, was destined in the 1960s to pioneer the development of modern hot-air ballooning.
In 1930, an interest in ballooning, and a curiosity about the upper atmosphere led him to design a spherical, pressurized aluminum gondola that would allow ascent to great altitude without requiring a pressure suit. Supported by the Belgian Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) Piccard constructed his gondola.
Auguste Piccard and Paul Kipfer, wearing improvised crash helmets, September 1930
An important motivation for his research in the upper atmosphere were measurements of cosmic radiation, which were supposed to give experimental evidence for the theories of Albert Einstein, whom Piccard knew from the Solvay conferences and who was a fellow alumnus of ETH.
hese violent but powerful goddesses, when appeased, were forceful protectors and benefactors of the king and humankind. Although it is only recorded in texts much later, reference to the Tale of the Faraway Goddess in the Third Intermediate Period is frequently perceptible in small faience objects.
Under the Ptolemid Egypt seizes control of Judea for a time.
There are power struggles with the Seleucid Dynasty
Alexandria becomes a major center of trade, learning, and culture.
The Library of Alexandria is built
The Pharos(Lighthouse) of Alexandria is built (270 B.C)
Egypt becomes very wealthy but is mostly benefits the monarchy and the Greek officials
Native Egyptians are heavily taxed and exploited.
I've also included the names of queens.
Pharaohs and their queens are placed together
Reigning queens are marked with *
The Israelites also imagined the Earth to be a disc floating on water; an arched firmament separated the Earth from the heavens. Like most ancient peoples, the Hebrews believed the sky was a solid dome with the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars embedded in it.
The Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts of ancient Egypt show a similar cosmography; Nun (the Ocean) encircled nbwt ("dry lands" or "Islands").
The term flat-Earther is often used in a derogatory sense to mean anyone who holds ridiculously antiquated views. The first use of the term flat-earther recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is in 1934 in Punch: "Without being a bigoted flat-earther, perceived the nuisance ... of fiddling about with globes ... in order to discover the South Seas." The term flat-earth-man was recorded in 1908: "Fewer votes than one would have thought possible for any human candidate, were he even a flat-earth-man."